> Linux Man Page: "cat"


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The Linux Documentation Project maintains an archive of snaphots of the (English language) core Linux manual pages that are maintained by Michael Kerrisk. Corrections and additions are welcome, but review the "Help Wanted" list, first.

Man pages belonging to programs are usually distributed together with those programs. Therefore, the core Linux man-pages mainly contains the pages for system calls and library routines, special devices, and file formats. However, it also contains documentation for a few programs, in cases where the authors or maintainers of the program do not distribute man pages themselves.

This page is part of release 3.11 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at


man page(1) manual page Table of Contents


cat - concatenate files and print on the standard output


cat [OPTION] [FILE]...


Concatenate FILE(s), or standard input, to standard output.

-A, --show-all
equivalent to -vET

-b, --number-nonblank
number nonblank output lines

equivalent to -vE

-E, --show-ends
display $ at end of each line

-n, --number
number all output lines

-s, --squeeze-blank
never more than one single blank line

equivalent to -vT

-T, --show-tabs
display TAB characters as ^I


-v, --show-nonprinting
use ^ and M- notation, except for LFD and TAB

--help display this help and exit

output version information and exit

With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.


cat f - g
Output f’s contents, then standard input, then g’s contents.

Copy standard input to standard output.


Written by Torbjorn Granlund and Richard M. Stallman.

Reporting Bugs

Report bugs to <>.


Copyright © 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. This is free software. You may redistribute copies of it under the terms of the GNU General Public License <>. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

See Also

The full documentation for cat is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and cat programs are properly installed at your site, the command

info cat

should give you access to the complete manual.

Table of Contents

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