> Linux Man Page: "ldd"


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The Linux Documentation Project maintains an archive of snaphots of the (English language) core Linux manual pages that are maintained by Michael Kerrisk. Corrections and additions are welcome, but review the "Help Wanted" list, first.

Man pages belonging to programs are usually distributed together with those programs. Therefore, the core Linux man-pages mainly contains the pages for system calls and library routines, special devices, and file formats. However, it also contains documentation for a few programs, in cases where the authors or maintainers of the program do not distribute man pages themselves.

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ldd - print shared library dependencies


ldd [OPTION]... FILE...


ldd prints the shared libraries required by each program or shared library specified on the command line.


Print the version number of ldd.

-v --verbose
Print all information, including, for example, symbol versioning information.

-u --unused
Print unused direct dependencies. (Since glibc 2.3.4.)

-d --data-relocs
Perform relocations and report any missing objects (ELF only).

-r --function-relocs
Perform relocations for both data objects and functions, and report any missing objects or functions (ELF only).

--help Usage information.


The standard version of ldd comes with glibc2. Libc5 came with an older version, still present on some systems. The long options are not supported by the libc5 version. On the other hand, the glibc2 version does not support -V and only has the equivalent --version.

The libc5 version of this program will use the name of a library given on the command line as-is when it contains a ’/’; otherwise it searches for the library in the standard locations. To run it on a shared library in the current directory, prefix the name with “./".


ldd does not work on a.out shared libraries.

ldd does not work with some extremely old a.out programs which were built before ldd support was added to the compiler releases. If you use ldd on one of these programs, the program will attempt to run with argc = 0 and the results will be unpredictable.

See Also , ldconfig(8)

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