> Linux Man Page: "ln"


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ln - make links between files


(1st form)
(2nd form)
(3rd form) ln [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY TARGET... (4th form)


In the 1st form, create a link to TARGET with the name LINK_NAME. In the 2nd form, create a link to TARGET in the current directory. In the 3rd and 4th forms, create links to each TARGET in DIRECTORY. Create hard links by default, symbolic links with --symbolic. When creating hard links, each TARGET must exist.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

make a backup of each existing destination file

like --backup but does not accept an argument

-d, -F, --directory
allow the superuser to attempt to hard link directories (note: will probably fail due to system restrictions, even for the superuser)

-f, --force
remove existing destination files

-n, --no-dereference
treat destination that is a symlink to a directory as if it were a normal file

-i, --interactive
prompt whether to remove destinations

-s, --symbolic
make symbolic links instead of hard links

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX
override the usual backup suffix

-t, --target-directory=DIRECTORY
specify the DIRECTORY in which to create the links

-T, --no-target-directory
treat LINK_NAME as a normal file

-v, --verbose
print name of each linked file

--help display this help and exit

output version information and exit

The backup suffix is ‘~’, unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX. The version control method may be selected via the --backup option or through the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable. Here are the values:

none, off
never make backups (even if --backup is given)

numbered, t
make numbered backups

existing, nil
numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise

simple, never
always make simple backups


Written by Mike Parker and David MacKenzie.

Reporting Bugs

Report bugs to <>.


Copyright © 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. This is free software. You may redistribute copies of it under the terms of the GNU General Public License <>. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

See Also

link(2) , symlink(2)

The full documentation for ln is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and ln programs are properly installed at your site, the command

info ln

should give you access to the complete manual.

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use open software!